The effect of self-regulated learning strategies on the primary school students' independent learning skill

Sukowati Sukowati(1*), E. Kus Eddy Sartono(2), Gunarti Ika Pradewi(3),

(1) Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta
(2) Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta
(3) Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


Students have Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) which can motivate themselves to arrange personal goals, plan strategies done to achieve the goal, until to evaluate the behaviors. Besides that, students can be more responsible to themselves so that the learning independence of students can be formed. This research aimed to investigate the level of SRL and learning independence of elementary school students, and to investigate the influence of SRL towards the learning independence of elementary school students. This research used a quantitative approach with the comparative research design. The population in this research was 387 students with the sample used was 194 students taken randomly using Slovin’s formula. The instrument used in this research consisted of 24 questions by using 4-point Likert Scale. The data collection technique was used by comparing SRL of students. The data analysis was conducted by SPSS version 24. The finding of the research showed that SLR and learning independence of elementary school students was on the category medium and has a tcount of 8,516. In addition, the F-test result obtained was 240, 783. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a significant influence between SRL and the learning independence of elementary school students. The futher reasearch must be based on previous studies. The influence of SRL on student independence and the factors that influence needed to described more comperhensive.


Self-Regulated Learning; SRL; Learning Independence; Elementary School Students

Full Text:

Fulltext PDF


Acar, E., & Aktamış, H. (2010). The relationship between self-regulation strategies and prospective elementary school teachers’ academic achievement in mathematics teaching course. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 5539–5543.

Aktamış, H., & Acar, E. (2010). The effect of “laboratory practices in science teaching” course on development of prospective science teachers’ self- regulation skills. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 5549–5553.

Ariani, D. W. (2016). Why do i study? The mediating effect of motivation and self-regulation on student performance. Business, Management and Education, 14(2), 153–178.

Arikunto, S. (2010). Prosedur penelitian: Suatu pendekatan praktik. Rineka Cipta.

Artino, A. R., & Jones, K. D. (2012). Exploring the complex relations between achievement emotions and self-regulated learning behaviors in online learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 15(3), 170–175.

Azevedo, R., Cromley, J. G., Winters, F. I., Moos, D. C., & Greene, J. A. (2005). Adaptive human scaffolding facilitates adolescents’ self-regulated learning with hypermedia. Instructional Science, 33(5–6), 381–412.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice-Hall.

Boekaerts, M. (1997). Self-regulated learning: A new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educators, teachers, and students. Learning and Instruction, 7(2), 161–186.

Boekaerts, M., & Corno, L. (2005). Self-regulation in the classroom: A perspective on assessment and intervention. Applied Psychology, 54(2), 199–231.

Butler, D. L. (1998). The strategic content learning approach to promoting self-regulated learning: A report of three studies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 682–697.

Cheng, C. K. E. (2011). The role of self-regulated learning in enhancing learning performance. The International Journal of Research and Review, 6(1), 1–16.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. SAGE Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Pearson.

Davis, D., Chen, G., van der Zee, T., Hauff, C., & Houben, G.-J. (2016). Retrieval practice and study planning in MOOCs: Exploring classroom-based self-regulated learning strategies at scale. In European conference on technology enhanced learning (pp. 57–71).

De Backer, L., Van Keer, H., & Valcke, M. (2015). Exploring evolutions in reciprocal peer tutoring groups’ socially shared metacognitive regulation and identifying its metacognitive correlates. Learning and Instruction, 38, 63–78.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49(1), 14–23.

Desmita, D. (2012). Psikologi perkembangan peserta didik. Rosdakarya.

Duckworth, A. L., Taxer, J. L., Eskreis-Winkler, L., Galla, B. M., & Gross, J. J. (2019). Selfcontrol and academic achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 70(1), 373–399.

Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (2002). Early intervention and the development of self-regulation. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 22(3), 307–335.

Gavora, P., Jakešová, J., & Kalenda, J. (2015). The Czech validation of the self-regulation questionnaire. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 171, 222–230.

Green, J., Nelson, G., Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. (2006). The causal ordering of self-concept and academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. International Education Journal, 7(4), 534–546.

Gunzenhauser, C., & Saalbach, H. (2020). Domain-specific self-regulation contributes to concurrent but not later mathematics performance in elementary students. Learning and Individual Differences, 78, 101845.

Hong, E., & O’Neil, H. F. (2001). Construct validation of a trait self-regulation model. International Journal of Psychology, 36(3), 186–194.

Jakešová, J., Gavora, P., Kalenda, J., & Vávrová, S. (2016). Czech validation of the self-regulation and self-efficacy questionnaires for learning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 313–321.

Kadhiravan, S. (2012). Self-regulated learning of adolescent in relation to their achievement motivation. Journal of Psychosocial Research, 7(2), 211–218.

Labuhn, A. S., Bogeholz, S., & Hasselhorn, M. (2008). Fostering learning through stimulation of self-regulation in science lessons. Zeitschrift Fur Padagogische Psychologie, 22(1), 13–24.

Lai, C., & Hwang, G. (2016). A self-regulated flipped classroom approach to improving students’ learning performance in a mathematics course. Computers & Education, 100, 126–140.

Maldonado-Mahauad, J., Pérez-Sanagustín, M., Kizilcec, R. F., Morales, N., & Munoz-Gama, J. (2018). Mining theory-based patterns from Big data: Identifying self-regulated learning strategies in Massive Open Online Courses. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 179–196.

McClelland, M. M., & Cameron, C. E. (2012). Self-regulation in early childhood: Improving conceptual clarity and developing ecologically valid measures. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 136–142.

Mudjiman, H. (2007). Belajar mandiri (Self-motivated learning). UNS Press.

Ning, H. K., & Downing, K. (2010). The reciprocal relationship between motivation and self-regulation: A longitudinal study on academic performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(6), 682–686.

Panadero, E. (2017). A review of self-regulated learning: Six models and four directions for research. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(422), 1–28.

Panadero, E., & Järvelä, S. (2015). Socially shared regulation of learning: A review. European Psychologist, 20(3), 190–203.

Peeters, J., De Backer, F., Kindekens, A., Triquet, K., & Lombaerts, K. (2016). Teacher differences in promoting students’ self-regulated learning: Exploring the role of student characteristics. Learning and Individual Differences, 52, 88–96.

Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 385–407.

Rusman, R. (2011). Model-model pembelajaran: Mengembangkan profesionalisme guru. Rajawali Pers.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. Guilford Press.

Schreiber, J. B., & Asner-Self, K. (2010). Educational research. Wiley Global Education.

Schunk, D. H. (2005). Commentary on self-regulation in school contexts. Learning and Instruction, 15(2), 173–177.

Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective. Pearson.

Stefanou, C., Lord, S. M., Prince, M. J., & Chen, J. C. (2014). Effect of classroom gender composition on students’ development of self-regulated learning competencies. International Journal of Engineering Education, 30(2), 333–342.

Van Laer, S., & Elen, J. (2019). The effect of cues for calibration on learners’ self-regulated learning through changes in learners’ learning behaviour and outcomes. Computers & Education, 135, 30–48.

Vandevelde, S., Van Keer, H., & Rosseel, Y. (2013). Measuring the complexity of upper primary school children’s self-regulated learning: A multi-component approach. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38(4), 407–425.

Vermunt, J. D., & Vermetten, Y. J. (2004). Patterns in student learning: relationships between learning strategies, conceptions of learning, and learning orientations. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 359–384.

Wong, J., Khalil, M., Baars, M., de Koning, B. B., & Paas, F. (2019). Exploring sequences of learner activities in relation to self-regulated learning in a massive open online course. Computers & Education, 140(June), 103595.

Woolfolk, A. (2007). Educational psychology. Pearson Education, Inc.

Zheng, J., Xing, W., Zhu, G., Chen, G., Zhao, H., & Xie, C. (2020). Profiling self-regulation behaviors in STEM learning of engineering design. Computers & Education, 143, 103669.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3–17.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45(1), 166–183.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1990). Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 51–59.

Ziv, M., & Frye, D. (2004). Children’s understanding of teaching: the role of knowledge and belief. Cognitive Development, 19(4), 457–477.

Ziv, M., Solomon, A., Strauss, S., & Frye, D. (2016). Relations between the development of teaching and theory of mind in early childhood. Journal of Cognition and Development, 17(2), 264–284.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 102 times
Fulltext PDF - 17 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Psychology, Evaluation, and Technology in Educational Research

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Our Journal indexed by:

Psychology, Evaluation, and Technology in Educational Research
ISSN: 2622-5506

Creative Commons License
Psychology, Evaluation, and Technology in Educational Research is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Based on a work at


PETiER Stats